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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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September-October 2019
Volume 62 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 175-230

Online since Thursday, October 24, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Action of citral on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in juvenile mice p. 175
Thao Thi Phuong Nguyen, Seon Hui Jang, Soo Joung Park, Dong Hyu Cho, Seong Kyu Han
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_32_19  PMID:31670280
The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) is admitted as a pivotal site of integrating and regulating orofacial nociceptive inputs. Although citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal) is involved in antinociception, the action mechanism of citral on the SG neurons of the Vc has not been fully clarified yet. In this study, we examined the direct membrane effects of citral and how citral mediates responses on the SG neurons of the Vc in juvenile mice using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Under high chloride pipette solution, citral showed repeatable inward currents that persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker, and 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione, a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist. However, the citral-induced inward currents were partially blocked by picrotoxin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA)-receptor antagonist, or by strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist. Further, the citral-induced responses were almost blocked by picrotoxin with strychnine. We also found that citral exhibited additive effect with GABA-induced inward currents and glycine-induced inward currents were potentiated by citral. In addition, citral suppressed the firing activities by positive current injection on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taken together, these results demonstrate that citral has glycine- and/or GABA-mimetic actions and suggest that citral might be a potential target for orofacial pain modulation by the activation of inhibitory neurotransmission in the SG area of the Vc.
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Effects of cannabinoid modulation on hypothalamic nesfatin-1 and insulin resistance p. 182
Oktay Kaya, Makbule Elif Yilmaz, Sinasi Bayram, Ozgur Gunduz, Gulnur Kizilay, Levent Ozturk
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_50_19  PMID:31670281
Both nesfatin-1 and cannabinoid systems involved in the regulation of sleep, metabolism, and food intake. The relationship between cannabinoid system and nesfatin-1 levels remains to be elucidated. This study investigated nesfatin-1 and insulin resistance in 72-h rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived mice under the effects of cannabinoid, and cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R blocking. Sixty mice were exposed to 72-h sleep deprivation. Groups and drug administrations were as follows: Group 1 (control) received injection of vehicle. Group 2 received WIN 55,212,2. Group 3 received AM251 (CB1R antagonist) followed by WIN 55,212,2 injection. Group 4 received SR144528 (CB2R antagonist) followed by WIN 55,212,2 injection. Group 5 received only AM251. Group 6 received only SR144528. Blood samples were collected 1 h after drug administration and prepared for biochemical measurements. Glucose levels were measured by glucometer, whereas insulin and nesfatin-1 levels were measured by ELISA. Central nesfatin-1 was also assessed using immunohistochemistry. One-way analysis of variance together with post hoc Tukey's test was used for inter-group comparisons. Serum nesfatin-1 levels were comparable in all study groups. Brain nesfatin-1 immune-positive cell count was lower in WIN group compared to controls. The administration of CB1R or CB2R antagonist prevented reduction in nesfatin-1-positive cell count. Insulin resistance was higher in WINCB2 and CB2 groups than in control and WINCB1 groups. Cannabinoid treatment reduced nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and this effect was prevented by either CB1R or CB2R antagonist pretreatment. Insulin resistance might be related to CB2 receptor activation which was independent from central nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity.
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Glycine tomentella hayata extract and its ingredient daidzin ameliorate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and oxidative stress through the action of antioxidation, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammation p. 188
Kung-Chieh Wu, Wei-Yu Lin, Yi-Ting Sung, Wei-Yi Wu, Yu-Hsiuan Cheng, Tung-Sheng Chen, Bing-Juin Chiang, Chiang-Ting Chien
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_60_19  PMID:31670282
We explored the therapeutic potential of intragastric administration of traditional Chinese medicine Glycine tomentella Hayata (I-Tiao-Gung [ITG]) extract and its major component Daidzin on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and bladder hyperactivity in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into control, CYP (200 mg/kg), CYP+ITG (1.17 g/kg/day), and CYP+Daidzin (12.5 mg/kg/day) groups. We measured the voiding function by the transcystometrogram and evaluated the pathology with the hematoxylin and eosin and Masson stain. We determined the bladder reactive oxygen species (ROS) amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence analyzer, the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) by Western blot and the expression of multiple cytokine profiles, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 through a cytokine array. ITG extract contains 1.07% of Daidzin through high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of ITG extract and Daidzin in scavenging hydrogen peroxide activity was more efficient than distilled water. CYP-induced higher urination frequency, shorter intercontraction interval, and lower maximal voiding pressure in the bladders and these symptoms were significantly ameliorated in CYP+ITG and CYP+Daidzin groups. The amount of in vivo bladder ROS and the expression of 3-NT and NOX4 expressions were significantly increased in CYP group but were efficiently decreased in the CYP+ITG and CYP+Daidzin groups. CYP-induced fibrosis, hemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration, and edema in the bladders were significantly attenuated in the CYP+ITG and CYP+Daidzin groups. These results suggested that ITG extract and its active component Daidzin effectively improved CYP-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis through inhibiting the MMP-8, TIMP-1, and oxidative stress.
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Adrenergic receptor beta-3 rs4994 (T>C) and liver X receptor alpha rs12221497 (G>A) polymorphism in Pakistanis with metabolic syndrome p. 196
Uzma Zafar, Saba Khaliq, Zaima Ali, Khalid Pervaiz Lone
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_45_19  PMID:31670283
The present study aimed to determine the association of adrenergic receptor beta-3 (ADRB3) rs4994 T>C and liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α) rs12221497 G>A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (Met S) and the related traits in Pakistanis. Patients of Met S were recruited from the Endocrinology and Diabetic Clinic of Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore, over the time span of 6 months from July to December 2016. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ADRB3 was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and of LXR-α by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of TT variant of ADRB3 T>C in Met S was 69 (34.5%) and in controls 89 (44.5%), frequency of TC 103 (51.5%) and 96 (48%), and of CC 28 (14%) and 15 (7.5%), respectively. In the recessive model (CC: TT + TC), CC genotype was found to be associated with the increased risk of Met S (P = 0.027; odds ratio [OR] = 2.09; confidence interval [CI] =1.08–4.03) and the association remained significant after controlling for the confounders such as age and sex. The frequency of GG variant of LXR-α G>A in Met S was 35 (17.5%) and in controls 15 (7.5%), GA 129 (64.5%) and 137 (68.5%), and AA 36 (18%) and 48 (24%), respectively. In the recessive model (GG: GA + AA), GG genotype was found to be associated with the increased risk of Met S (P = 0.004; OR = 2.52; CI = 1.33–4.80) and the association remained significant after controlling for the confounders such as age and sex. It was concluded that SNP of ADRB3 (190 T>C) and LXR-α (−115 G>A) were associated with the risk of Met S and might increase the susceptibility to the obesity-related traits.
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Magnesium sulfate attenuates lipopolysaccharides-induced acute lung injury in mice p. 203
Wu Li, Xiaoling Wu, Jialin Yu, Chenjie Ma, Peipei Zhuang, Jin Zeng, Jiamei Zhang, Guangcun Deng, Yujiong Wang
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_48_19  PMID:31670284
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common and severe respiratory disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although some progress has been made in the past years, the pathogenesis of ALI is still poorly understood and the therapeutic outcome has still not been significantly improved. It is well-recognized that magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) possesses potent anti-inflammation capacity. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of MgSO4 in lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)-induced ALI taken into account that excessive inflammatory response plays critical role in the development of ALI. In this study, Kunming mice were intravenously injected with LPS through tail vein to establish the ALI model and in parallel, A549 cells were used to establish cell model. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lung tissue, lung permeability index, hematoxylin and eosin staining, cytokines in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), neutrophil counts in BALF, LPS-induced A549 cell apoptosis as well as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) expression in both mice and A549 cells were detected. Our results demonstrated that MgSO4 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, oxidative stress (decreased MDA levels), and lung inflammatory response. Moreover, MgSO4 exerted protective effects by mitigating LPS-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, MgSO4 decreased the AIF and PARP-1 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Our results, taken together, demonstrated that MgSO4 is a potential therapeutic agent for ALI taken into consideration that MgSO4 is commonly used in clinical settings.
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The association of matrix metalloproteinas-2 promoter polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility in Taiwan p. 210
Guan-Liang Chen, Shou-Cheng Wang, Te-Chun Shen, Chia-Wen Tsai, Wen-Shin Chang, Hsin-Ting Li, Cheng-Nan Wu, Che-Yi Chao, Te-Chun Hsia, Da-Tian Bau
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_43_19  PMID:31670285
Matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP2) has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancer. However, the contribution of various genotypes of MMP2 to lung cancer is controversial and not yet been examined in Taiwan. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the association of MMP2 genotypes with lung cancer risk among Taiwanese. In this hospital-based, case–control study, 358 lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the genotypic distributions of MMP2-1306 and MMP2- 735 were determined. Then, their association with lung cancer was evaluated, and their interaction with personal smoking status was also examined via stratification analysis. The results showed that the percentages of variant CT and TT at MMP2-1306 were 17.3% and 1.7% among the lung cancer patients, respectively, much lower than those of 28.7% and 2.4%, respectively, among the healthy controls (P for trend = 0.0001). The allelic frequency distribution analysis showed that the variant T allele at MMP2-1306 conferred a statistically significantly lower lung cancer risk than the wild-type C allele (adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.41–0.72, P = 0.0001). There was an obvious effect of MMP2-1306 genotype on lung cancer risk among the subpopulations of ever smokers but not nonsmokers. As for the genotypes of MMP2-735, there was no such differential distribution in the aspects of genotypic or allelic frequencies, or combinative effects with smoking status. The genotypes of MMP2-1306 may act as a biomarker in determining personal susceptibility to lung cancer in Taiwan. The contribution of MMP2 genotypes alone and its joint effects with personal cigarette smoking habit on lung cancer susceptibility should be taken into consideration of the clinical practices for early detection and prediction of lung cancer in Taiwan.
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Association between adiposity and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: Leptin, neuropeptide Y, desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and agouti-related protein in nonobese participants p. 217
Anna Lucka, Adam Wysokiński
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_29_19  PMID:31670286
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between adiposity parameters and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and agouti-related protein in 30 healthy, non-obese subjects. Thirty European Caucasian adult participants were included in the study (17 men and 13 women). Body composition (body fat and lean body mass) was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of peptides in serum were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women had higher level of leptin (P < 0.001), with no other differences for analyzed peptides. We have found a significant correlation between serum concentrations of CART and NPY (P < 0.001). Fasting leptin level was associated with age (P = 0.002), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and lean body mass (P < 0.001). Levels of ghrelin were lower in participants with dyslipidemia (P = 0.009). Levels of obestatin (P = 0.008) and leptin (P = 0.02) were higher in participants with insulin resistance. Associations between body fat and appetite-regulating peptides are more complex than simple feedback loops. Leptin is probably the first signal in the pathway that regulates body fat content, as of all analyzed peptides leptin was the only one that was associated with body composition or anthropometric measurements.
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Lifetime overproduction of circulating angiotensin-(1-7) in rats attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle damage biomarkers after exhaustive exercise p. 226
Lenice Kappes Becker, Nádia Lúcia Totou, Mariana Flávia Oliveira, Daniel Barbosa Coelho, Emerson Cruz de Oliveira, Daisy Motta-Santos, Emerson Silami-Garcia, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Santos
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_57_19  PMID:31670287
Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) can modulate glucose metabolism and protect against muscular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lifetime increase of circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) at exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). Sprague-Dawley (SD) and transgenic rats TGR(A1-7)3292 (TR) which overproduce Ang-(1-7) (2.5-fold increase) were submitted to ESE. The data showed no differences in time to exhaustion (SD: 4.90 ± 1.37 h vs. TR: 5.15 ± 1.15 h), creatine kinase, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Lactate dehydrogenase (SD: 219.9 ± 12.04 U/L vs. TR: 143.9 ± 35.21 U/L) and α-actinin (SD: 336.7 ± 104.5 U/L vs. TR: 224.6 ± 82.45 U/L) values were significantly lower in TR. There was a significant decrease in the range of blood glucose levels (SD: −41.4 ± 28.32 mg/dl vs. TR: −13.08 ± 39.63 mg/dl) in SD rats. Muscle (SD: 0.06 ± 0.02 mg/g vs. TR: 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g) and hepatic glycogen (SD: 0.66 ± 0.36 mg/g vs. TG: 2.24 ± 1.85 mg/g) in TR were higher. The TR presented attenuation of the increase in skeletal muscle damage biomarkers and of the changes in glucose metabolism after ESE.
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