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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-June 2020
Volume 63 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 95-148

Online since Tuesday, June 23, 2020

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Physiological and pathological functions of beta-amyloid in the brain and alzheimer's disease: A review p. 95
Ladislav Volicer
Alzheimer's disease is a major health problem all over the world. The role of beta-amyloid (Aβ) is at the center of investigations trying to discover the disease pathogenesis and to develop drugs for treatment or prevention on Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes both physiological and pathological functions of Aβ and factors that may participate in the disease development. Known genetic factors are trisomy of chromosome 21, mutations of presenilin 1 and 2, and apolipoprotein E4. Lifetime stresses that increase the risk of development of Alzheimer's disease are described. Another important factor is the level of education, especially of linguistic ability. Lifestyle factors include mental and physical exercise, head injury, social contacts, and diet. All these factors might potentiate the effect of aging on the brain to increase the risk of development of pathological changes. The review summarizes pathological features of Alzheimer brain, Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, and brain atrophy. Consequences of Alzheimer's disease that are reviewed include cognitive deficit, loss of function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Because there is no effective treatment, many persons with Alzheimer's disease survive to severe and terminal stages which they may fear. Alzheimer's disease at this stage should be considered a terminal disease for which palliative care is indicated. Importance of advance directives, promoting previous wishes of the person who was developing dementia and who subsequently lost decision-making capacity, and limitations of these directives are discussed. Information in this review is based on author's knowledge and clinical experience that were updated by searches of PubMed.
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Combination of exercise training and resveratrol attenuates obese sarcopenia in skeletal muscle atrophy p. 101
Chyi-Huey Bai, Javad Alizargar, Ching-Yi Peng, Jia-Ping Wu
Obese sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with increases in adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combination of exercise training and resveratrol on the pathological pathway from obesity to sarcopenia, and potential therapy for skeletal muscle declines in physical function. Two animal models were experimented: (1) C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and resveratrol (low-, middle-, and high-dose) for 4 weeks. (2) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice with sarcopenia were used. Skeletal muscle function of SAMP8 mice expressed an age-associated decline. In SAMP8 mice, resveratrol (150 mg/Kg BW, daily) was administered by oral gavage two times a week for 1 month of the experimental period. Exercise training based on adaptations in the muscle is training twice a week for 4 weeks. SAMP8 mouse skeletal muscle in each group was analyzed by H and E staining, transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and Western blot analysis. Mitochondrial function expression, apoptosis and relative hypertrophy signaling in HFD-induced obesity mice and SAMP8 mice were determined by Western blot analysis. Results of the present study indicate that effect of resveratrol on skeletal muscles of HFD-induced obesity mice is linked to an increase in Bcl-2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/AKT expressions. On the other hand, resveratrol, and its combination with exercise training, attenuate the aging-related mitochondrial dysfunction involving Bad, caspase 3, and interleukin-6 expressions in SAMP8 mice. Combination of exercise training and resveratrol induced hypertrophy in skeletal muscles of sarcopenia SAMP8 mice. Therefore, we suggest combination of exercise training and resveratrol as a therapeutic potential in obese sarcopenia.
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Muscle type from which satellite cells are derived plays a role in their damage response p. 113
Chuang-Yu Lin, Chun-Yin Hou, Chung-Min Tsai, Hsi Chang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of satellite cells to muscular atrophies which possess different pathological characteristics and which were induced by distinct damages. Right lower limbs of rats were exposed to denervation or disuse and later its tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus (SOL) muscles were analyzed. After confirming their functional impairments indicated by common but distinct pathological and electrophysiological characteristics, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of Pax7 and Pax3 expressions and the number of Pax7+ve and Pax3+ve cells were analyzed sequentially at day 0, day 7, and day 14. TA muscles of both denervation- and disuse-induced atrophy models showed persisted low level of Pax7 expression from day 7 (0.91 ± 0.23 and 0.31 ± 0.07, P = 0.06, n = 6) through day 14 (1.09 ± 0.15 and 0.4 ± 0.09 [P < 0.05]). On the other hand, significant elevations were observed in Pax3 expression in both atrophy models (2.73 ± 0.46 and 2.75 ± 0.26 [P < 0.05]) at day 7. Similar to TA muscle, resembled pattern of Pax7 and Pax3 expression changes were observed between the SOL muscles of denervation- and disused-atrophy models. These trends were further confirmed by the changes in Pax7+ve and Pax3+ve cell numbers of TA and SOL muscles in both atrophy models. Despite the distinct pathological findings, similar patterns in the changes of Pax3 and Pax7 expressions and the changes of Pax7+ve and Pax3+ve cell numbers were observed between the denervation- and disuse-induced atrophy models and this commonality was admitted among the muscle type. Therefore, we claim that the muscle regeneration orchestrated by satellite cells was governed by the muscle type in which satellite cells reside.
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Resveratrol enhances therapeutic effect on pancreatic regeneration in diabetes mellitus rats receiving autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells p. 122
Tung-Sheng Chen, Pei-Fang Lai, Chia-Hua Kuo, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Ray-Jade Chen, Tsung-Jung Ho, Yu-Lan Yeh, B Mahalakshmi, Vijaya Padmaviswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Pancreatic damage is the major causative agent in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Several strategies have been suggested to regenerate pancreatic functions, such as stem cell transplantation and administration of active components isolating from natural herbals. This study aims to investigate if the synergistically protective effect on damaged pancreatic tissues can be observed in STZ-induced DM rats with autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) coupling with oral administration of resveratrol. Pathological conditions can be recognized in DM rats with pancreatic damage, including reduction of islet size, suppression of survival markers, downregulation of AMPK/Sirt1 axis, and activation of apoptotic signaling. Autologous transplantation of ADSC slightly improves pancreatic functions, whereas autologous transplantation of ADSC coupling with oral administration of resveratrol significantly improves pancreatic functions in DM rats. We suggest that oral administration of resveratrol may enhance the therapeutic effect on DM patients receiving autologous transplantation of ADSC.
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Glucose reduces the osmopressor response in connection with the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in red blood cells p. 128
You-Hsiang Chu, Ying-Hsuan Tai, Chun-Chang Yeh, Mei-Yung Tsou, Herng-Sheng Lee, Shung-Tai Ho, Min-Hui Li, Tso-Chou Lin, Chih-Cherng Lu
Glucose ingestion attenuates the water ingestion-induced increase in the total peripheral vascular resistance and orthostatic tolerance. We investigated the gastrointestinal physiology of glucose by examining the effect of glucose ingestion on the functional expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane. This study was performed in 24 young, healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected at 5 min before and 25 min and 50 min after an ingestion of 10% glucose water 500 mL, water 500 mL, or normal saline 500 mL. We determined glucose and osmolality in plasma, and phosphorylation of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), and FAK in RBC membrane. Our results showed that glucose ingestion reduced the rise of peripheral vascular resistance after water ingestion and upregulated the serine phosphorylation of Glut1. It also lowered both the serine phosphorylation of FAK and tyrosine phosphorylation of AQP1, compared with the ingestion of either water or saline. In an ex vivo experiment, glucose activated the Glut1 receptor and subsequently reduced the expression of FAK compared with 0.8% saline alone. We concluded that glucose activates Glut1 and subsequently lowers the functional expression of FAK, a cytoskeleton protein of RBCs. The functional change in the RBC membrane proteins in connection with the attenuation of osmopressor response may elucidate the pathophysiology of glucose in postprandial hypotension.
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Effects of Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp. roots extracts on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities p. 137
Thuy-Lan Thi Vo, Nae-Cherng Yang, Shu-Er Yang, Chien-Lin Chen, Chi-Hao Wu, Tuzz-Ying Song
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., also named pigeon pea, is widely grown in the tropics and the subtropics. C. cajan roots (CR) and ribs stewed in hot water have been used as a traditional medicine in various cultures to treat diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional components of hot water (WCR) and 50%, 95% ethanol extracts (EECR50 and EECR95) from CR, then evaluating their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The results indicated that EECR95 had higher polyphenol, especially the isoflavones (e.x. daidzein, genistein, and cajanol) than those of the other extracts, and it also exhibited the most potent anti-oxidative activities by in vitro antioxidant assay. In the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, we found that EECR95 significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Mechanism studies showed that EECR95 mainly activated nuclear factor (NF) erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 and inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and thus exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Overall, this study suggests that CR may have the potential to be developed as a biomedical material and that genistein, which has relatively high uptakes (3.44% for the pure compound and 1.73% for endogenous genistein of EECR95) at 24 h of incubation with RAW 264.7 cells, could be the main active component of CR.
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