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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-February 2020
Volume 63 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-51

Online since Friday, February 7, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Sex-related differences in sudomotor function in healthy early twenties focused on activated sweat gland density p. 1
Tae-Hwan Park, Jeong-Beom Lee, Hye-Jin Lee, Bahda Yun
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_46_19  PMID:32056980
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference in sudomotor function between healthy males and females in their early twenties by measuring skin surface area and activated sweat gland density (ASGD). The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART), a method for evaluating autonomic nervous system activity, was used for quantification. In QSART, the sweat glands are activated directly or indirectly by the subcutaneous application of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, through iontophoresis. This series of mechanisms is called the sudomotor axon reflex. After recording age, height, weight, and several measurements of the forearm, QSART was performed on 101 healthy controls aged 21–26 years to measure ASGD. The mean temperature and humidity on the measurement days were 11.4°C and 58.1% on May 3, 2018, and 14.7°C and 70.3% on May 10, 2018. The result of independent sample t-test showed higher ASGD in women (P < 0.05). The body surface area and the surface area of the forearms were higher in men (P < 0.001), but the number of activated sweat glands was not significantly different according to sex. The activated sweat gland counts of the body and forearms were analyzed through linear regression by age for males and females. Except for the activated sweat gland count of the male body, the analysis showed a tendency to decrease with increasing age but was not statistically significant in any case (P > 0.05). Showing insufficient coefficient of determination (R2), multiple regression analyses with sex and ages did not correct this insignificance between age and activated sweat gland count.
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Distinct patterns of interleukin-12/23 and tumor necrosis factor α synthesis by activated macrophages are modulated by glucose and colon cancer metabolites p. 7
Ching-Ying Huang, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_75_19  PMID:32056981
Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for colitis-associated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Macrophages play a key role in altering the tumor microenvironment by producing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our previous studies showed that glucose metabolism conferred death resistance for tumor progression and exerted anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic gut mucosa. However, the effect of glucose and cancer metabolites in modulating macrophage cytokine profiles remains poorly defined. We used an in vitro system to mimic intestinal microenvironment and to investigate the roles of glucose and cancer metabolites in the cross-talk between carcinoma cells and macrophages. Human monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of conditioned media (CM) collected from human CRC Caco-2 cells incubated in either glucose-free or glucose-containing media. Our results demonstrated that glucose modulated the macrophage cytokine production, including decreased LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor [TNF]α and interleukin [IL]-6) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine (i.e., IL-10), at resting state. Moreover, glucose-containing CM reduced the macrophage secretion of TNFα and IL-8 but elevated the IL-12 and IL-23 levels, showing an opposite pattern of distinct pro-inflammatory cytokines modulated by cancer glucose metabolites. In contrast, LPS-induced production of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (a macrophage-derived chemoattractant for granulocytes) was not altered by glucose or CM, indicating that resident macrophages may play a more dominant role than infiltrating granulocytes for responding to cancer metabolites. In conclusion, glucose metabolites from CRC triggered distinct changes in the cytokine profiles in macrophages. The downregulation of death-inducing TNFα and upregulation of Th1/17-polarizing IL-12/IL-23 axis in macrophages caused by exposure to cancer-derived glucose metabolites may contribute to tumor progression.
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Physiological stress against simulated 200-m and 500-m sprints in world-class boat paddlers p. 15
Nutcharee Senakham, Sirichet Punthipayanon, Tanormsak Senakham, Promjit Sriyabhaya, Sonthaya Sriramatr, Chia-Hua Kuo
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_87_19  PMID:32056982
To characterize physiological stress response against simulated short-distance sprints among world-class paddlers. Thirteen dragon boat gold medalists performed 200-m and 500-m simulated race trials on a kayak ergometer in a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover fashion. During the 200-m and 500-m sprints, oxygen consumption (VO2) increased from 8.7 to 31.2 ml/kg/min and from 8.0 to 32.7 ml/kg/min within 60 s, respectively. A plateau of 35 ml/kg/min below maximal VO2(VO2max) (39.7 ± 6.3 ml/kg/min) was reached at 75 s during the 500-m sprint. Respiratory exchange ratio dropped from 1.21 ± 0.16 to 1.07 ± 0.12 and 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.06 ± 0.16 at 45 s, and resurged to 1.17 and 1.28 at the end of 200-m and 500-m sprints with lactate concentration reached 13 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 mM. Aerobic energy contribution to paddling power increases from ~10% for the first 15 s to ~80% for the last 15 s during the 500-m trial. Postexercise plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased by 376% and 543% above baseline after 200-m and 500-m trials (P < 0.001, between trials), respectively, followed by quick returns to baseline in 30 min (P < 0.001). Increased plasma creatine kinase (+48%) was observed only after the 500-m trial (P < 0.001, between trials), not 200-m trial. Our data suggest that muscle damage occurred only when maximal sprinting exceeding 2 min, highlighting an importance of volume than intensity on exercise-induced muscle damage.
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Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on serum irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in the winter season: Indoor training versus outdoor training p. 21
Serhat Ozbay, Süleyman Ulupınar, Engin Şebin, Konca Altınkaynak
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_84_19  PMID:32056983
The aim of this study is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aerobic training performed indoors and outdoors on irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in winter. Thirty-two healthy males participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: outdoor group (n = 16) and indoor group (n = 16). They then performed 40-min aerobic running exercises 4 days/week for 18 weeks. The outdoor group trained at −5°C–5°C environmental temperature, while the indoor group trained at 21°C–25°C. Blood samples were collected before and after the 18-week training period and immediately after the first training. The results showed that single aerobic exercise induced minimal increase in serum irisin concentrations in both groups. In addition, irisin levels did not change in the outdoor group but significantly decreased in the indoor group after the 18-week training period. Aerobic exercise had no acute or chronic effects on serum adropin levels in the indoor group. However, the aerobic training caused a decrease in adropin levels chronically, but there was no acute effect after single aerobic exercise in the outdoor group. Furthermore, there was no acute effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol after single aerobic exercise in both groups. However, after the 18-week training period, there was a significant increase in HDL-C levels in both groups. Moreover, the increase in HDL-C in the outdoor group was higher than in the indoor group. Thus, this study provides evidence for the beneficial chronic effects of aerobic exercise and cold on HDL-C levels as well as the beneficial acute effects on irisin concentrations.
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Formosan wood mice (Apodemus semotus) exhibit more exploratory behaviors and central dopaminergic activities than C57BL/6 mice in the open field test p. 27
Kun-Ruey Shieh, Shu-Chuan Yang
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_47_19  PMID:32056984
Three-quarters of the lands in Taiwan are over 1000 m above sea level. Formosan wood mice (Apodemus semotus), also called Taiwanese field mice, are largely found at altitudes of 1400 ~ 3700 m and are the dominant rodents in these areas. Notably, Formosan wood mice show high levels of exploratory behaviors, not only in the wild but also in laboratory situations. Therefore, in this study, we examined the behavioral responses and central dopaminergic activities of male C57BL/6J mice and Formosan wood mice in the open field test. Dopamine and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were used as indices of dopaminergic activities. Formosan wood mice showed higher levels of exploration and locomotor activity than C57BL/6J mice in the open field test. Higher central dopaminergic activities in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex were found in Formosan wood mice than in C57BL/6J mice in the open field test. Higher levels of locomotion and central dopaminergic activities in Formosan wood mice were consistent after two exposures to the open field test; however, dramatic decreases in levels of locomotion and central dopaminergic activities in C57BL/6J mice were found after two exposures to the open field test. The present study found that Formosan wood mice exhibited higher levels of locomotor activity and exploration and central dopaminergic activities than C57BL/6J mice after one or two exposures to the open field test.
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Beneficial effects of a negative ion patch on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammation, and exercise performance in badminton athletes p. 35
Chin-Shan Ho, Mon-Chien Lee, Chi-Yao Chang, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Wen-Ching Huang
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_33_19  PMID:32056985
Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are widely applied and accepted for therapeutic purposes because of their numerous benefits. Negative ion treatment belongs to one of the critical categories defined by the National Center for CAM, with such treatment capable of air purification and ameliorating emotional disorders (e.g., depression and seasonal affective disorder). Negative ions can be produced naturally and also by a material with activated energy. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) often occurs due to inadequate warm up, high-intensity exercise, overload, and inappropriate posture, especially for high-intensive competition. Few studies have investigated the effects of negative ion treatment on muscular injury in the sports science field. In the current study, we enrolled badminton athletes and induced muscle damage in them through eccentric exercise in the form of a high-intensity squat program. We evaluated the effects of negative ion patches of different intensities at three points (preexercise, postexercise, and recovery) by analyzing physiological indexes (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, creatine kinase [CK], and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels) and performing a functional assessment (a countermovement jump [CMJ] test). We found that a high-intensity negative ion patch could significantly reduce the levels of TNF-α, an injury-associated inflammatory cytokine, and related markers (CK and LDH). In addition, muscular overload-caused fatigue could be also ameliorated, as indicated by the functional CMJ test result, and related muscular characteristics (tone and stiffness) could be effectively improved. Thus, the negative ion treatment could effectively improve physiological adaption and muscular fatigue recovery after EIMD in the current study. The negative ion patch treatment can be further integrated into a taping system to synergistically fulfill exercise-induced damage protection and functional elevation. However, the effects of this treatment require further experimental validation.
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The role of genotype/phenotype at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Rs1130409 in renal cell carcinoma p. 43
Cheng-Hsi Liao, Wen-Shin Chang, Jiuan-Miaw Liao, Hsi-Chin Wu, Te-Chun Shen, Jai-Sing Yang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chia-Wen Tsai, Chien-Chih Yu, Da-Tian Bau
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_72_19  PMID:32056986
The DNA repair capacity plays a critical role in maintaining the genomic stability and gatekeeping for individual cancer risk. In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. In the case–control study, 92 RCC patients and 580 cancer-free patients matched by age and gender were recruited. The apurinic/APE genotyping work was conducted with typical restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology after polymerase chain reaction. At the meanwhile, thirty renal tissue samples with variant genotypes were examined for their apurinic/APE mRNA and protein expressions by real-time quantitative reverse transcription method and Western blotting. The results showed that compared with the wild-type TT genotype, the people with TG and GG genotypes of apurinic/APE Asp148Glu had 0.88- and 1.09-fold risk of RCC, respectively. We have also examined the in vivo transcriptional (RNA) and translational (protein) levels with renal tissues of various apurinic/APE Asp148Glu genotypes, revealing that the apurinic/APE mRNA and protein were of similar levels among people of TT, TG, or GG genotypes. There was no joint gene-environment effect of apurinic/APE Asp148Glu genotype and smoking habit on RCC risk. The evidence indicated that apurinic/APE Asp148Glu genotypic variants did not alter its mRNA and protein expression among RCC patients. The genotype of apurinic/APE Asp148Glu may not serve as a proper predictive marker for RCC risk in Taiwan.
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CORRIGENDUM Top

Corrigendum: Contrasting actions of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on glucose tolerance in rats p. 50

DOI:10.4103/0304-4920.277957  PMID:32056987
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO REVIEWERS IN 2019 Top

Acknowledgment to Reviewers in 2019 p. 51
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