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   Table of Contents - Current issue
March-April 2019
Volume 62 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-94

Online since Thursday, April 25, 2019

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Neuropeptide FF modulates neuroendocrine and energy homeostasis through hypothalamic signaling p. 47
Ya-Tin Lin, Jin-Chung Chen
Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is known as a morphine-modulating peptide and was first isolated in 1985. It has been characterized as an RF-amide peptide. The traditional role of NPFF is mediation of the pain response, and it displays both anti-opioid and pro-opioid actions through central nervous system. In the recent decade, additional evidence has revealed some untraditional features of NPFF, such as regulation of the neuroendocrine system, energy homeostasis, anti-inflammation, pain transmission, and peripheral modulation of adipose tissue macrophages. Neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) is a physiological receptor of NPFF, and the actions of NPFF may occur through downstream NPFFR2 signaling. NPFF and NPFFR2 increase the neuronal activity in various areas of the hypothalamus to modulate the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, the autonomic nervous system, food intake, and energy balance. These underlying cellular mechanisms have been explored in the past few years. Here, we review the impact of NPFF and related RF-amide peptides on hypothalamic function. The interaction of NPFF with NPFFR2 in the hypothalamus is emphasized, and NPFF-NPFFR2 system may represent an important therapeutic target in hypothalamic-related disorders in the future.
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Autophagy: A potential target for rescuing sepsis-induced hepatic failure p. 53
Chin Hsu
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units worldwide; however, it remains a scientific and clinical challenge in modern medicine. An excessive inflammatory response associated with high level of reactive oxygen species results in mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the unfolded protein response leading to subsequent energetic organ failure in septic patients. In addition to blocking the inflammatory cascade directly, new strategies focusing on host endogenous adaption to severe infection may hold better promise for improving outcomes in septic patients. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular response to stress and pathogen invasion. The study of autophagic responses to sepsis is a critical component of understanding the mechanisms by which tissues respond to infection. This review aims at elucidating the role of autophagy in sepsis-induced hepatic failure and further explores the possible factor that suppresses autophagy and potential targets of augmenting autophagy, in an effort to provide a new perspective for the clinical treatment of sepsis-induced hepatic failure.
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Knockdown of protein kinase CK2 blocked gene expression mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced serum response element p. 63
Shu-Ping Yang, Chi-Yi Lo, Hui-Min Tseng, Chih-Chang Chao
One of the principal signaling pathway outcomes from brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the activation of antiapoptotic pathways. In addition to the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, BDNF activates protein kinase CK2 to mediate its neuroprotective effect. The inhibition of CK2 activity has been shown to induce apoptosis. Although serum response element (SRE)-mediated transcription has been reported to be activated by BDNF and that the phosphorylation of serum response factor (SRF) by CK2 has been shown to enhance its DNA binding activity, the biological relevance of these interactions remains largely unclear. In the present study, we found that SRE-mediated transcription, CK2 activity, and SRF phosphorylation increased in PC12 cells under BDNF treatment. The transfection of CK2α siRNA blocked the enhancing effect of BDNF on SRE-mediated transcription, SRF phosphorylation, and Mcl-1 gene expression. Moreover, the blockade of CK2 diminished the antiapoptotic effects of BDNF on SRE-mediated transcription, Mcl-1 gene expression, and cell viability under rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Our data may assist in the development of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting apoptosis during neurodegeneration.
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Different susceptibilities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations p. 70
Yu-Hsu Chen, Shao-Yu Peng, Ming-Te Cheng, Yu-Pao Hsu, Zong-Xi Huang, Winston Teng-Kuei Cheng, Shinn-Chih Wu
Glucocorticoid-induced bone loss is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. This toxic effect has not been efficiently managed, possibly due to the incomplete understanding of the extraordinarily diverse cellular responses induced by glucocorticoid treatment. Previous literatures revealed that high dose of exogenous glucocorticoid triggers apoptosis in osteocytes and osteoblasts. This cell death is associated with glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts and examine the responses of osteoclasts to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. We demonstrated the biphasic effects of exogenous glucocorticoid on osteoblastic mitochondrial functions and elevated intracellular oxidative stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. On comparison, similar treatment did not induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress in osteoclasts. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species was decreased in osteoclasts. The differences are not due to varying efficiency of cellular antioxidant system. The opposite effects on nitrogen oxide synthase might provide an explanation, as the expression levels of nos2 gene are suppressed in the osteoclast but elevated in the osteoblast. We further revealed that glucocorticoids have a substantial impact on the osteoblastic mitochondria. Basal respiration rate and ATP production were increased upon 24 h incubation of glucocorticoids. The increase in proton leak and nonmitochondrial respiration suggests a potential source of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress. Long-term incubation of glucocorticoids accumulates these detrimental changes and results in cytochrome C release and mitochondrial breakdown, consequently leading to apoptosis in osteoblasts. The mitochondrial alterations might be other sources of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress in osteoblasts.
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Prepulse inhibition and acoustic startle response in young healthy Chinese p. 80
Renying He, Guang-Yan Wu, Bing Wu, Juan Yao, Yi Yang, Jian-Feng Sui, Xuan Li
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) are considered to be effective neurobiological measures of sensorimotor gating and information processing. The deficit of PPI and habituation of ASR has been proposed to be candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, there has been little information on PPI and ASR measures in Chinese. The present study aimed to provide more information about the characteristics of PPI and ASR in young healthy Chinese and investigate their sensitivity to experimental parameters and characteristics of population. In this study, we examined the PPI and habituation of ASR in 41 young healthy adults (21 males and 20 females), using an acoustic startle stimulus of 115 dB and a prepulse of 75 dB at a lead interval (LI) of 60 ms and 120 ms, respectively. The behavioral performance demonstrated that the PPI and habituation of ASR in all the young participants were robust. The significant difference was not observed in PPI and habituation between male and female. The block effect on PPI was significant; PPI reduces with increasing training. Latency facilitation was observed under prepulse conditions, with a significant effect of LI. Compared to previous studies in Caucasians, Chinese in this study shows a higher habituation and PPI. In conclusion, this research provides more data of behavioral characteristics of PPI and ASR in young healthy Chinese. Chinese in this study shows a higher habituation and PPI than Caucasians in previous studies.
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Differential effects of sympatholytic agents on the power spectrum of rats during the cooling-induced hemodynamic perturbations p. 86
Yung-Nien Yang, Hsien-Lung Tsai, Yu-Chieh Lin, Yia-Ping Liu, Che-Se Tung
Cold stress-elicited hemodynamic perturbations (CEHP) its underlying mechanisms still not clear. We examined the difference of two effector arms of sympathetic outflows, the sympathoadrenal system, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons, their role in CEHP genesis by using two sympatholytic agents, fusaric acid (FA, dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor) and guanethidine (GUA, norepinephrine-depleting drug). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 6, each), an intraperitoneal injection of control vehicle saline or FA or GUA and then all rats were subjected to a 10-min CS trial. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), dicrotic notch (Dn), power spectrum of blood pressure variability and HR variability (BPV, HRV), and coherence spectrum at very-low, low, and high frequency regions (VLF: 0.02–0.2 Hz, LF: 0.2–0.6 Hz, and HF: 0.6–3.0 Hz) were monitored using telemetry throughout the experiment course. We observed both FA and GUA attenuated SBP and HR and the spectral powers of BPV at VLF, LF, and HF in both baseline (PreCS) and cold stimuli (CS) conditions, but apparently, FA exerted stronger effects than GUA did. Both FA and GUA generally attenuated the responses of CS-induced pressor and tachycardia and the CS-increased VLFBPV, LFBPV, and HFBPV, but different effects between FA and GUA, when compared with control vehicle under CS. FA reduced the CS-reduced VLFHRV and the CS-increased LFBPV and HFBPV more than GUA did. We further observed in both PreCS and CS, GUA but not FA increased HFHRV; FA reduced but apparently, GUA increased the occurrence of Dn. Finally, we observed FA weakened, but GUA strengthened the coherence between BPV and HRV at both LF and HF regions. Taken together, the different effects between FA and GUA on CEHP indicate a role of the sympathoadrenal mechanism in response to CS.
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Retraction: Effects of combined administration of alfacalcidol and risedronate on cancellous and cortical bone mass of the tibia in glucocorticoid-treated young rats p. 93

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Retraction: Effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on the femoral bone mass and bone strength in orchidectomized rats p. 94

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