Figure 4: Colorectal cancer-derived conditioned medium and glucose increased the production of interleukin-12/23 in lipopolysaccharideactivated macrophages. Differentiated THP-1 macrophages activated with 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide were cultured with standard medium or Caco-2-derived conditioned medium. The control (CON) group of THP-1 cells was untreated in standard medium. THP-1 cells in standard medium groups were incubated in either glucose-free (φ) or glucose containing (25 mM) medium. The THP-1 cells in the conditioned medium groups were incubated with either glucose-free (φ) or glucose-containing (G, 25 mM) culture media obtained from Caco-2 cells. Levels of (a) interleukin-12 and (b) interleukin-23 were determined in macrophage cultures. *P < 0.05 versus respective standard medium groups; #P < 0.05 versus respective φ groups treated with lipopolysaccharide. The difference between the lipopolysaccharide and CON groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the statistical labels were omitted from the figures for clarification of the results (n = 8/groups).