Figure 3: Effects of exercise, resveratrol, and combination of exercise and resveratrol on the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in skeletal muscles of obesity-induced sarcopenia mice and age-related sarcopenia senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. (a) Representative western blotting analysis for Bcl 2 and Bad protein levels in HFD-induced obesity mice groups. All data are expressed mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, compared with control.#P < 0.05,##P < 0.01, compared with HFD mice without treatment. a-tubulin was used as a loading control. HFD: High-fat diet, LR: Low-dose resveratrol, MR: Middle-dose resveratrol, HR: High-dose resveratrol. (b) Representative Western blots using antibodies against Bcl 2, Bad, Cytochome c, Caspase 3, and α-tubulin in SAMP8 mice groups. After quantification, Bcl 2/α-tubulin, Bad/α-tubulin, Cytochrome c/α-tubulin, and Caspase 3/α-tubulin ratios were calculated. α-tubulin was used as a loading control. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, compared with SAMP8 control group. NS: No significant difference. SAMP8+Ex: Exercise training SAMP8 groups, SAMP8+Re: Resveratrol SAMP8 groups, SAMP8+Ex+Re: Combination of exercise training and resveratrol SAMP8 groups.