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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November-December 2020
Volume 63 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 245-300

Online since Saturday, December 26, 2020

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Interplay of COVID-19 and physiological dysfunctions Highly accessed article p. 245
Yu-Hsiu Chang, Chih-Heng Huang, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_91_20  PMID:33380608
The outbreak of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to impact the socioeconomic fabric and the general well-being of numerous populations and communities around the world. As cases continue to rise exponentially, gaining a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the associated clinical implications of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, becomes increasingly necessary. In this article, we delineate the role of COVID-19 in physiological and immunological dysfunction. Specifically, we highlight the various possible mechanisms and effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on major organ systems as well as their contribution toward multiorgan system failure. By analyzing studies and statistics regarding various comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, we make inferences on the linkage between COVID-19, immune injury, multiorgan system damage, and disease progression.
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Long-term aerobic exercise training-induced anti-inflammatory response and mechanisms: Focusing on the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway p. 250
Chien-Wei Chen, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chorng-Kuang How, Chi-Chang Juan
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_78_20  PMID:33380609
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), which regulate inflammatory reactions, has become a popular research topic in recent years. This article reviews the latest scientific evidence on the regulation of TLR-4 by regular aerobic exercise training. The literature shows that long-term regular aerobic exercise training can effectively attenuate the expression of TLR-4 in immune cells and regulate its downstream intracellular cascade, including the p38 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. This further reduces cytokines secretion by inflammatory cells, which enhances immune system. We consider that the scientific evidence that long-term aerobic exercise training improves the inflammatory response provides a reasonable basis for using aerobic exercise training as a treatment for patients.
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Effects of female sex hormones on the development of atherosclerosis Highly accessed article p. 256
Sung-Po Hsu, Wen-Sen Lee
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_69_20  PMID:33380610
Atherosclerosis and associated pathologies, such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke, are still the leading cause of death in Western society. The impact of female sex hormones on cardiovascular diseases has been studied intensively with conflicting findings. The controversy is mainly due to the differences in groups sampling, animal models used, hormonal treatment regimens, and the data analyzed. In the present article, the results of in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials are under review.
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Sympathetic activation of splenic T-lymphocytes in hypertension of adult offspring programmed by maternal high fructose exposure p. 263
Pei-Chia Tsai, Yung-Mei Chao, Julie Y H Chan
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_85_20  PMID:33380611
Whereas neuroimmune crosstalk between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and immune cells in the pathophysiology of hypertension is recognized, the exact effect of SNS on T-lymphocyte in hypertension remains controversial. This study assessed the hypothesis that excitation of the SNS activates splenic T-lymphocytes through redox signaling, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of hypertension. Status of T-lymphocyte activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the spleen were examined in a rodent model of hypertension programmed by maternal high fructose diet (HFD) exposure. Maternal HFD exposure enhanced SNS activity and activated both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the spleen of young offspring, compared to age-matched offspring exposed to maternal normal diet (ND). Maternal HFD exposure also induced tissue oxidative stress and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleen of HFD offspring. All those cellular and molecular events were ameliorated following splenic nerve denervation (SND) by thermoablation. In contrast, activation of splenic sympathetic nerve by nicotine treatment resulted in the enhancement of tissue ROS level and activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the spleen of ND offspring; these molecular events were attenuated by treatment with a ROS scavenger, tempol. Finally, the increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) programmed in adult offspring by maternal HFD exposure was diminished by SND, whereas activation of splenic sympathetic nerve increased basal SBP in young ND offspring. These findings suggest that excitation of the SNS may activate splenic T-lymphocytes, leading to hypertension programming in adult offspring induced by maternal HFD exposure. Moreover, tissue oxidative stress induced by the splenic sympathetic overactivation may serve as a mediator that couples the neuroimmune crosstalk to prime programmed hypertension in HFD offspring.
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Helium Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice via Suppressing Toll-Like Receptor 4-Nuclear Factor κB-Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha/ Interleukin-18 Signaling p. 276
Yaxing Zhang, Jiongshan Zhang, Kangquan Xu, Zifeng Chen, Xiaodan Xu, Jingting Xu, Shuhui Zheng, Min Dai, Hongzhi Yang
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_66_20  PMID:33380612
The nonanesthetic noble gas helium (He) can protect many organs against ischemia and reperfusion injury, such as liver and heart. However, the role of He on cardiac dysfunction during sepsis is not clear. In this study, we established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction mouse model to examine the influence of He on the impaired cardiac function, and further investigated the possible innate immune mechanisms that may be involved. LPS induced left ventricular dysfunction and cavity enlargement, as indicated by decreased percent ejection fraction, percent fractional shortening, left ventricular anterior wall thickness in systole, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, while increased left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-systolic volume. He improved the impaired left ventricular function and cavity enlargement in a dose-dependent manner, and it was beneficial at 1.0 mL/100 g. Mechanistically, He inhibited toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, reduced the phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and subsequently alleviated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression in heart. Therefore, He protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice partially via inhibiting myocardial TLR4-NF-κB-TNF-α/IL-18 signaling.
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Glucocorticoid transiently upregulates mitochondrial biogenesis in the osteoblast p. 286
Chien-Ning Hsu, Chih-Yuan Jen, Yu-Hsu Chen, Shao-Yu Peng, Shinn-Chih Wu, Chao-Ling Yao
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_51_20  PMID:33380613
Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss is the most prevalent form of secondary osteoporosis. Previous studies demonstrated that long-term incubation of dexamethasone (DEX) induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions, consequently leading to apoptosis of differentiated osteoblasts. This DEX-induced cell death might be the main causes of bone loss. We previously described that DEX induced biphasic mitochondrial alternations. As GC affects mitochondrial physiology through several different possible routes, the short-term and long-term effects of GC treatment on mitochondria in the osteoblast have not been carefully characterized. Here, we examined the expression levels of genes that are associated with mitochondrial functions at several different time points after incubation with DEX. Mitochondrial biogenesis-mediated genes nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) and Nrf2 were upregulated after 4-h incubation, and then declined after 24-h incubation, suggesting that mitochondrial biogenesis were transiently upregulated by DEX. In contrast, mitochondrial fusion gene optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) started to be elevated as the biogenesis started to decrease. Finally, the mitochondrial fission increased and apoptosis becomes prominent. Agree with the mitochondrial biphasic alterations hypothesis, the results suggested an early increase of mitochondrial activities and biogenesis upon DEX stimulation to the osteoblasts. The oxidative phosphorylation and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels increased results in oxidative stress accumulation, leading to mitochondrial fusion, and subsequently fission and triggering the apoptosis. Our results indicated that the primary effects of GC on mitochondria are promoting their functions and biogenesis. Mitochondrial breakdown and the activation of the apoptotic pathways appeared to be the secondary effect after long-term treatment.
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Systemic effects of platelet-rich plasma local injection on serum and urinary anabolic metabolites: A prospective randomized study p. 294
Shu-Jui Kuo, Wen-Yi Chou, Chieh-Cheng Hsu, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Su-Fan Lin, Kai-Kit Siu, Tsai-Chan Tsai, Jih-Yang Ko, Yi Chih Sun
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_86_20  PMID:33380614
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely utilized in the treatment of sports injuries. However, potential systemic effects after localized PRP injection are unclear at present. In this prospective randomized study, 24 Taiwanese male athletes with tendinopathy were randomized into a PRP group (n = 13) or a saline group (n = 11). The concentrations of serum and urine biomarkers were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assessment as well as gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis, respectively. The results showed no significant differences in serum levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, or serum substance P (SP) between the two groups before intervention, nor at 1, 2, or 7 days after intervention. However, a significant decrease in the serum SP level 1 and 7 days after PRP injection was observed. Regarding urinary concentrations of metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), no between-group differences before intervention, nor at 1, 2, or 7 days after intervention, were observed. Our study failed to observe significant surge of serum anabolic molecules and urinary excretion of anabolic AAS metabolites after PRP injection.
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Author Index for Volume 63  

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Subject Index for Volume 63  
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Contents of Volume 63  
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