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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-February 2021
Volume 64 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-58

Online since Thursday, February 25, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Lack of effect of dopamine receptor blockade on SKF83959-altered operant behavior in male rats p. 1
Pei-Pei Liu, Chih-Chang Chao, Ruey-Ming Liao
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_92_20  PMID:33642339
Dopamine (DA) is important for the performance of operant behavior as revealed by psychopharmacological studies that manipulate the activity of DA subtype receptors. However, the effects of SKF83959, an atypical DA D1 receptor agonist, on operant behavior and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. The present study sought to determine whether blockade of DA D1- and D2-subtyped receptors would reverse the operant behavior altered by SKF83959. Male rats were trained to respond on either a fixed-interval 30 s (FI30) schedule or a differential reinforcement of low-rate response 10 s (DRL10) schedule, two timing-relevant tasks but with distinct reinforcement contingencies. Pharmacological evaluation was conducted with injection of a selective D1 (or D2) receptor antagonist alone or in combined with SKF83959 (1.0 mg/kg) following a stable baseline of behavioral performance. The results showed that SKF83959 treatment alone significantly disrupted the performance of FI30 and DRL10 behaviors mainly by showing the decreases of the response-related measures, and the distinct profiles of the behavior altered by the drug were manifested by the qualitative analysis of inter-response time data on both tasks. The effects of SKF83959 were not significantly affected/reversed by the pretreatment of either SCH23390 or eticlopride injected at the doses of 0.02 and 0.06 mg/kg; however, a subtle reversal effect was observed in the treatment of low-dose eticlopride. Despite that these results confirm the FI30 and DRL10 behaviors changed by SKF83959, the absence of pharmacological reversal effect by DA receptor antagonist suggests that either D1- or D2-subtyped receptors may not play a critical role in the alteration of timing-relevant operant behavior produced by SKF83959.
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Vitamin C supplementation improves blood pressure and oxidative stress after acute exercise in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study p. 16
Chongchira Boonthongkaew, Terdthai Tong-Un, Yupaporn Kanpetta, Nisa Chaungchot, Chanvit Leelayuwat, Naruemon Leelayuwat
DOI:10.4103/cjp.cjp_95_20  PMID:33642340
This study aimed to assess the effect of Vitamin C on blood pressure (BP), and subsequently on oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) release, following the low-intensity exercise in the patients. This study included 24 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (age, 53 ± 7 years; hemoglobin A1c, 10.1% ± 0.9%) randomized into two 6-week daily arms based on the consumption of either placebo or 1000 mg Vitamin C. The crossover trial occurred after a 6-week washout. Before and after both supplementation arms, all patients performed cycling exercise at 33% of peak oxygen consumption for 20 min. BP was measured before, immediately, and 60 min after the exercise. Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after the exercise to determine plasma ascorbate, malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), and NO concentrations. Data showed significant lower BP in the Vitamin C arm when compared with the placebo arm (systolic BP [SBP] P < 0.001 at every time point, diastolic BP [DBP] P < 0.001 except at immediately after exercise, P < 0.05). Plasma ascorbate concentration (P < 0.05 at every time point) and plasma NO (at resting P < 0.001, immediately after exercise P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the Vitamin C arm than in the placebo arm. Plasma MDA (P < 0.05 at every time point) and F2-IsoPs (P < 0.05 at every time point) concentrations were significantly lower in the Vitamin C arm than in the placebo arm. In addition, data showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0.001 at every time point), DBP (P < 0.001 except at immediately after exercise P < 0.05), plasma MDA (P < 0.001 at every time point), and F2-IsoPs (P < 0.05 at every time point) at post-supplementation than at pre-supplementation. Besides, there were significantly higher plasma ascorbate (P < 0.05 at every time point) and NO (at rest P < 0.01, immediately after exercise P < 0.05) concentrations at post-supplementation than at pre-supplementation. This is in contrast to the placebo treatment arm which demonstrated no statistical difference in all outcomes throughout the experiment. This study suggests that 6-week Vitamin C supplementation decreased preexercise and postexercise BPs, possibly due to improved oxidative stress and NO release. However, exercise had no effect on any outcome measures.
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Astragalus protects PC12 cells from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal damage: A serum pharmacological study p. 24
Li-Ying Guo, Feng-Lei Shi, Meng Li, Jin-Hao Sun, Chuan-Gang Li, Zeng-Xun Liu
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_50_20  PMID:33642341
Accumulating evidence has already indicated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) possesses tremendous potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Astragalus, also named Huangqi, is a famous traditional medical herb that can be applied to treat cerebral ischemia and prevent neuronal degeneration. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, Astragalus-containing serum (ASMES) was prepared and added into the culture medium of PC12 cells to explore its neuroprotective effect on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-caused neuronal toxicity. Our data showed that ASMES significantly ameliorated the cellular viability of cultured PC12 cells against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA (P < 0.05). Moreover, ASMES significantly decreased the cell apoptosis triggered by 6-OHDA (P < 0.01). Furthermore, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay was performed to detect the changes in oxidative stress, and we showed that 6-OHDA elevated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas ASMES significantly reversed these changes (P < 0.01). Besides, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay showed that ASMES could restore 6-OHDA-damaged MMP in cultured PC12 cells (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragalus could protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-caused neuronal toxicity, and possibly, the ROS-mediated apoptotic pathway participated in this process. Collectively, our findings provided valuable insights into the potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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The Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Alpinia officinarum Hance Mediated by the Suppression of NF-kappaB and MAPK Signaling p. 32
Chia-Yu Li, Szu-En Cheng, Sue-Hong Wang, Jane-Yii Wu, Chang-Wei Hsieh, Hsi-Kai Tsou, Ming-Shiun Tsai
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_81_20  PMID:33642342
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Alpinia officinarum Hance extract (AOE) and identify its main active ingredients. AOE was obtained using a 95% ethanol extraction method. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to induce an inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that AOE exerts anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of prostaglandin E2 secretion and cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2) production. We further analyzed the components of AOE using high-performance liquid chromatography and found that AOE is comprised of several bioactive flavonoids including quercetin (Q), kaempferol (K), galangin (G), and curcumin (C). These four flavonoids effectively inhibited nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. Moreover, they reduced COX-2 and inducible NO synthase expressions via regulation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, we compared and contrasted the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of these four flavonoids at the same dose in the LPS-induced cell inflammation model. The results showed that C is the most effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO production. However, only Q and K effectively attenuated LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 elevations. In conclusion, AOE and its major bioactive compounds exert anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced inflammation. As A. officinarum Hance is much cheaper than any of its four flavonoids, especially G, we suggest using AOE as an anti-inflammatory agent.
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Rab11-mediated focal adhesion turnover in sarcoma cell migration p. 43
Ling-Yi Kao, Wei-Ting Chao
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_90_20  PMID:33642343
Focal adhesion (FA) turnover has been demonstrated to play an important role in cell migration; however, the mechanism of FA turnover is complicated and requires further investigation. In this study, Rab11, which is involved in endosome recycling, was examined in terms of a direct regulatory function in FA formation during cell migration. Wild-type and dominant negative (DN) Rab11 or shRab11 were transfected into human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells; the cell motility and migration abilities were determined, and localization of Rab11 and FA molecules was monitored by confocal microscopy. The results showed that Rab11 deficiency or the DN form inhibited sarcoma cell migration. Rab11 was also found to be co-localized with recycled β1 integrin and affected FA formation. We further employed immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation to examine the physical interaction between Rab11 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the results suggested that Rab11 affected cell migration by regulating FAK recycling to aid formation of an FA complex on the cell membrane.
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Hypermethylation of SHISA3 DNA as a blood-based biomarker for colorectal cancer p. 51
Sheng-Hui Tang, Cheng-Wen Hsiao, Wei-Liang Chen, Li-Wei Wu, Jin-Biou Chang, Bing-Heng Yang
DOI:10.4103/CJP.CJP_89_20  PMID:33642344
In Taiwan, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer and the cancer with the third highest mortality rate. This may be because of the difficulty of detecting the disease in the early stages, as well as the fact that colonoscopy, a typical method used in screening for CRC, causes discomfort to the recipient and is prone to technical interference. For the earlier detection of CRC, finding an easier screening method with a simpler collection procedure is essential. Thus, in the present study, plasma samples from patients with CRC were analyzed to determine the extent of methylation in SHISA3 DNA. Studies have suggested that SHISA3, a newly identified tumor suppressor, can regulate tumor growth, and that the inactivation of its DNA can be traced to epigenomic alterations in CRC. Another study reported the presence of hypermethylated SHISA3 DNA in CRC biopsy specimens. In the present study, the plasma of 30 patients with CRC and nine healthy controls was collected and analyzed for the concentration of cell-free DNA through bisulfite sequencing. The methylation rates were determined. Our results have shown that an increasing amount of cell-free DNA in the group of CRC patient's plasma compared to the healthy group. Moreover, patients with later stages of CRC had higher concentrations of cell-free DNA. Notably, the methylation rate of SHISA3 was higher in the plasma of the CRC group than in that of the healthy group. The results indicated that the presence of tumor cells does not reduce the degree of SHISA3 DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with CRC. In other words, the hypermethylation of SHISA3, which inactivates the gene, is a potential cause of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the methylation rate of SHISA3 DNA was higher in the plasma of patients with stage II CRC than in that of those with stage I CRC. In conclusion, the combination of conventional testing and screening for SHISA3 hypermethylation in plasma could improve the rate at which CRC is detected.
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RETRACTION Top

Retraction: Effect of intermittent administration of hPTH(1-34) on cortical bone geometry in rats treated with high-dose glucocorticoids p. 57

DOI:10.4103/0304-4920.310128  PMID:33642346
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CORRIGENDUM Top

Corrigendum: Glucocorticoid transiently upregulates mitochondrial biogenesis in the osteoblast p. 58

DOI:10.4103/0304-4920.306949  PMID:33642347
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO REVIEWERS IN 2020 Top

Acknowledgment to Reviewers in 2020  
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DOI:10.4103/0304-4920.310133  PMID:33642345
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