Figure 1: Maternal HFD exposure programs the increases in sympathetic nerve activity and T-lymphocyte activation in the spleen, as well as the increase in SBP in offspring. (a) Time course of changes in splenic NE level and SBP, (b) gating strategy for isolation of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ splenic cells by flow cytometry, (c) representative profiles showing CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations gated on isotype-stained and CD3+ stained cells at age of 6 weeks, and statistical results of changes in CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations of CD3+ cells in the spleen of offspring exposed to maternal HFD or ND at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 weeks of age. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, n = 6 per group at each age. *P < 0.05 versus ND group in post hoc Tukey's multiple range analysis. HFD: High fructose diet, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, NE: Norepinephrine, ND: Normal diet, SEM: Standard error of mean.