Figure 3: Sympathetic innervation primes tissue oxidative stress and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleen of HFD offspring. (a) Time course of changes in splenic ROS level and (b) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ and (c) expression of IL-10 in the spleen of ND and HFD offspring at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 weeks of age, as well as their modulations by SND (HFD + SND) at 6 weeks of age (insets on the right-hand side in figures). Data are presented as mean ± SEM, n = 5–6 per group at each age. *P < 0.05 versus ND group and #P < 0.05 versus HFD group in post hoc Tukey's multiple range analysis. ROS: Reactive oxygen species, IL: Interleukin, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α, INF-γ: Interferon-γ, HFD: High fructose diet, ND: Normal diet, SEM: Standard error of the mean, SND: Splenic nerve denervation.