Figure 4: Sympathetic activation induces tissue oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen of ND offspring. (a) Tissue NE and ROS levels and (b) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ and (c) expression of IL-10 in the spleen of ND offspring at 6 weeks of age that received saline (ND + saline) or nicotine (ND + nicotine) infusion (1 mg/kg/day, for 7 days at the age of 5 weeks). Data are presented as mean ± SEM, n = 4–6 per group at each age. *P < 0.05 versus ND group in post hoc Tukey's multiple range analysis. ROS: Reactive oxygen species, IL: Interleukin, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α, INF-γ: Interferon-γ, ND: Normal diet, SEM: Standard error of the mean, NE: Norepinephrine.