Figure 6: Effects of treatments with four different flavonoids on nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were treated with or without 1 μg/mL LPS and 12.5 μg/mL Q, K, G, or C for 24 h. (a) Cells were collected, followed by extraction of nuclear fraction. NF-κB p65 expressions were evaluated by Western blotting (upper panel). The expression level of each protein was quantified using ImageJ software. After normalization by lamin B1, relative NF-κB expression levels are shown as folds of no-treatment control (NC) values (1-fold) (lower panel). The total cell lysates were analyzed for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (b), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (c), and p38 (d) levels using ELISA. The relative amount of each phosphorylated MAPK was expressed as percentages of NC values (100%). #P < 0.05 compared to NC; *P < 0.05 compared to LPS. (e) Schematic diagram describes the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of AOE and four different flavonoids in LPS-stimulated macrophages.