Figure 1: Effect of female sex hormone deprivation on cardiac autophagy. (a) Representative immunofluorescence staining of LC3, cTnI and nucleus (DAPI) in left ventricular slices of sham-operated rats (SHAM) and ovariectomized rats (OVX). (b) Scatter plot with bar graph demonstrates the number of LC3 accumulative dots from immunofluorescence images representing the level of autophagy. (c) Representative immunoblot bands of LC3 and ACTB in the heart of SHAM and OVX groups. (d and e) Scatter plot with bar graphs demonstrate the expression level of LC3 to ACTB ratio and percentage of LC3-II to total LC3 (LC3-I plus LC3-II), respectively. Data are mean ± standard error of the mean from 6 to 7 hearts (5 fields per heart) in each group. *Significant difference (P < 0.05) between two groups using independent t-test.